Ishikawa

Ishikawa

Ishikawa diagram

This tool is named after Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-1989) who was a Japanese organisational theorist, Professor at the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Tokyo.

This tool is also commonly called a fishbone diagram after its shape, or PEM PEM after the most popular categories.

Categories

These categories are:

  • People (internal or external staff)
  • Environment (poor lighting, excessive steam or acts of god)
  • Method (work instructions, procedures, specifications)
  • Plant (manufacturing vessels – ovens, mixers, services etc)
  • Equipment (Test pieces and ancillary devices)
  • Materials (ingredients, packaging or the product itself)

Click on the diagram to see it expand.

PEMPEM, showing no categories PEMPEM, showing first category PEMPEM, showing first 2 categories PEMPEM, showing first 3 categories PEMPEM, showing first 4 categories PEMPEM, showing first 5 categories PEMPEM - showing all categories

Human factors decision tree

For the people elements of the study, certain considerations and factors will need to be analysed. These are summarised in this decision tree. Click on it to see a larger version.

Human factors decision tree